Where to hit off the tee at Swinkelsche 4?
Is the green narrower on the right at Cruden Bay 19?
How far to the flag at Tandridge 12?
Turfvaert hole 16 looks longer than it is

Confuse players with visual deception on the course

One of the main weapons a golf architect has in his arsenal is to use visual deception to confuse the player and make him or her uncertain about what shot to execute. By taking advantage of a number of genetically hardwired rules, people can be be fooled to such an extent that they have a hard time making good judgements.

At IVGD we proudly continue the tradition of visual deception started by Alister Mackenzie after his return from the Boer war as a camouflage expert. It is great to find out that even in the age of strokesavers, yardage finders and GPS watches, it still is possible to confuse and deceive the player's senses.

“Balance nothing if you can avoid it.”

Tom Simpson “The Architectural Side of Golf” 1930

"St. Andrews is the least obvious course in the world. It is covered with concealed rolls, bunkers, hollows, and hummocks, which become more and more bewildering as the ground becomes harder"

Bobby Jones “Golf Is My Game” 1960

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